Hazard and risk to countries can be determined probabilistically as a function of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and capacity. Current hazard/risk can be assessed based on country risk assessment reports, recurring events, current events in other countries and other sources.
Country Capacity is the combination of the strengths, attributes and resources available within the country to manage and reduce health emergency risks and strengthen resilience. The International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) require all WHO Member States to have the ability to detect, assess, report and respond to public health emergencies. Country capacities are assessed through the IHR Monitoring and Evaluation Framework, IHR-PVS National Bridging Workshops, health system data and related indicators.
National planning helps to determine what actions should be taken in the coming weeks, months and years to prevent, detect and respond to risks and threats. Actions can be identified through all-hazards National Action Plans for Health Security (NAPHS), disease-specific plans, contingency plans and other sources.
Donors and partners can include Member States, intergovernmental organizations, development banks, institutes, non-state actors and others who provide financial assistance and/or expertise to assist countries in strengthening and maintaining capacities to prevent, detect and respond to public health risks and threats.