Simulation Exercise

A simulation exercise is a form of practice, training, monitoring or evaluation of capabilities involving the description or simulation of an emergency, to which a described or simulated response is made. Simulation exercises can help to develop, assess and test functional capabilities of emergency systems, procedures and mechanisms. 

Simulation exercises are training and quality assurance tools, which provide an evidence-based assessment for the monitoring, testing and strengthening of functional capacities to respond to outbreaks and public health emergencies. As a training tool, they allow participants to learn and practice emergency response procedures in a safe and controlled environment. As a quality assurance tool, exercises test and evaluate emergency policies, plans and procedures. Simulation exercises play a key role in the development and implementation of preparedness and response capacities at all levels (national, regional, community and global) and have been identified as a key component in the validation of core capacities under the IHR monitoring and evaluation framework (2015).

A simulation exercise is more effective and efficient when a simulated scenario is used that is close to reality. The scenario is a pre-planned storyline that drives an exercise, as well as the stimuli used to achieve exercise objectives. The scenario is designed to stimulate exercise participants to respond to certain events and can be presented through various means, including through fake press articles, face to face through actors, audio/visual material including video clips, etc.

WHO has developed some generic exercise scenario`s that are taking place in the fictitious country of GlobalLand, using short video clips that can be found on this page. Aside for examining health issues within a constrained environment such as a single event, simulation exercise scenarios are being developed that reflect a more complex ‘real world’ operational environment. This includes health events in natural disasters and complex emergencies and the role that health plays in wider emergency response.

Simulation exercise calendar

Upcoming

SE
1 August 2019 to 30 August 2019
Pakistan TTX.2019
SE
8 August 2019 to 9 August 2019
Myanmar TTX. 2019
SE
12 August 2019 to 15 August 2019
South Sudan TTX 2019
SE
1 November 2019 to 30 November 2019
Malaysia TTX.2019
SE
1 November 2019 to 30 November 2019
Denmark FX Nov.2019
SE
18 November 2019 to 22 November 2019
JADE Exercise
SE
1 February 2020 to 29 February 2020
Malaysia TTX.2020
SE
1 February 2020 to 29 February 2020
Malaysia FSX.2020

Toolbox

Scenario Video Repository

Simulation exercise activities

Region Country Dates of exercise Activity Type Purpose PHE under review or scenario Status Full Report
African Region Nigeria 27 March 2019 to 28 March 2019 FX AimTo explore the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control’s capacity and capability to co-ordinate and support the National and State response to an outbreak of an infectious disease.  ObjectivesThe objectives for the exercise were:1. To exercise NCDC’s Infectious Disease Outbreak Response Plan (IDORP).2. To promote the understanding of NCDC’s role and responsibilities with its key stakeholders (Regional Director of Public Health, PHEOCs etc.) in the coordination to a public health incident. 3. To assess the effectiveness of NCDC’s risk communications processes and arrangements to warn and inform the public during a public health incident. 4. To assess the effectiveness of the surveillance system “SITAware” within NCDC HQ during a public health incident the outbreak of Cholera Conducted
European Region 11 July 2019 to 12 July 2019 TTX Conducted
Western Pacific Region Malaysia 1 November 2019 to 30 November 2019 TTX To test the current disaster response plan of the Ministry of Health. Planned
Western Pacific Region Malaysia 1 February 2020 to 29 February 2020 FSX To strengthen the multi-agency response to a disaster. Planned
Western Pacific Region Malaysia 1 February 2020 to 29 February 2020 TTX To test the current disaster response plan of the Ministry of Health. Planned
European Region Denmark 1 November 2019 to 30 November 2019 FX Copenhagen JADE IHR Exercise Planned
Eastern Mediterranean Region Lebanon 28 March 2019 to 30 March 2019 TTX Mass gathering and cross border coordination Conducted
European Region Kyrgyzstan Lab simlaution Planned
African Region United Republic of Tanzania 11 June 2019 to 14 June 2019 FSX BackgroundThe East African Community (EAC) region has experienced an increasing number of infectious disease outbreaks in the past, including Ebola, Rift Valley, Marburg and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, etc. In this regard, the EAC Secretariat is convening a cross-border Field Simulation Exercise (FSX) on 11-14 June 2019 at the border between Tanzania and Kenya (Namanga). The FSX is based on an EAC Sectoral Council of Ministers of Health decision1, taken in March 2015.The FSX is supported by the “Support to Pandemic Preparedness in the EAC Region” (PANPrep) project that the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH implements on behalf of the German Government. The World Health Organization (WHO) has been selected to lead and coordinate the planning, design, organisation, implementation and evaluation of the FSX. What is the purpose of the cross-border field simulation exercise?The purpose of the cross border FSX is to assess and further enhance multi-sectorial outbreak preparedness and response in the EAC region under a multi-sectorial One Health approach. It will test the operational capability of the regional and national contingency plans and standard operating procedures (SOPs) and will allow participants to familiarize themselves with the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders from different sectors and backgrounds who are involved in preparedness, mitigation and response. Furthermore, the FSX will be used to assess and identify strengths and weaknesses in coordination and collaboration mechanisms, emergency response deployment, logistics and administrative processes, risk and crisis communication (RCC) as well as emergency management and leadership. Findings from the FSX will be used to further improve preparedness and response capacities in the EAC region. What are the objectives of the cross-border field simulation exercise?The FSX will be characterized by actual response, mobilization of equipment and resources and commitment of staff. The FSX at Namanga will be conducted in a setting developed to be as realistic as possible, while ensuring a safe learning environment for all participants. It will include the actual deployment of resources required for coordination and response.The objectives of the FSX are to:1. Assess the use of early warning and event detection mechanisms at points of entry with emphasis on the Namanga border area between Kenya and Tanzania;2. Assess coordination mechanisms, command and control systems and information sharing channels between multiple sectors and countries; (e.g. activation of the EAC emergency structure, incident management systems and relevant emergency operations centres)3. Assess the deployment of national rapid response teams (RRT);4. Validate the activation and deployment of selected mobile laboratories;5. Assess animal and human cases investigation and management and functionality of selected veterinary and health facilities in the border area during a large scale outbreak of a RVF-like virus;6. Practise regional SOPs for cross-border pandemic preparedness and risk & crisis communication including community engagement;7. Evaluate selected preparedness and response measures at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) and Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA);8. Capture best practises and ensure transfer of lessons learned to the EAC community and other regional economic communities and to African regions; Which scenario will be used in the cross-border field simulation exercise?The selected scenario will simulate a cross border Rift Valley Fever-like virus outbreak, aggravated by environmental factors and with impact on humans and animals, lives and livelihoods, agriculture, trade and tourism, peace and security and the economy as a whole. Early warning, infections and deaths in animals and human beings will trigger the reporting and activation of national and regional preparedness and response mechanisms emphasising the importance of the One Health approach and of appropriate risk and crisis communication as well as cross border collaboration.Based on the recent need to prepare EAC Partner States for Ebola due to the current outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo, the fictitious component will feature a RVF virus that will mutate into a pathogen that can be transmitted between humans causing severe haemorrhagic fever resulting in increased numbers of cases and deaths. This will allow assessing and building EAC Secretariat’s and Partner States’ capacities to prepare and respond to an Ebola-like situation using the One Health approach.The scenario will be built and implemented around three stages namely:(1) Alert;(2) Event detection;(3) Response. Who will be participating in the cross-border field simulation exercise?The FSX is primarily targeted at 150 individuals from the EAC Secretariat and Partner States. This would primarily include individuals from EAC Secretariat (8), as well as Tanzania (65) and Kenya (65) from different levels including: Namanga as well as from national/regional levels who would perform the routine functions and tasks which they would perform during a real emergency response. Involved Partner States representatives from Burundi, Rwanda, South Sudan and Uganda will be participating as observers (12 in total, 3 per country). Furthermore, some international organisations and specialized institutions will support with the conduct and evaluation of the FSX, in order to identify strengths and weakness and to ensure broader lesson learning and sharing of best practises across the region.For more information, please visit the EAC website: https://www.eac.int/health/disease-prevention Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Kuwait 1 April 2019 to 30 April 2019
Western Pacific Region Malaysia TTX Kuala Lumpur : Pan stop Planned
Eastern Mediterranean Region Pakistan 1 August 2019 to 30 August 2019 TTX Mass gathering TTX Planned
African Region Zambia TTX EVD Preparedness Planned
African Region South Sudan 12 August 2019 to 15 August 2019 TTX EVD Preparedness EVD Planned
African Region Rwanda 30 July 2019 to 2 August 2019 FSX EVD Preparedness Conducted
African Region Congo TTX EVD Preparedness Planned
African Region Central African Republic TTX EVD Preparedness Planned
African Region Angola TTX EVD Preparedness Planned
Eastern Mediterranean Region Egypt 1 July 2019 to 31 July 2019 FX IHR NFP SimEx (Comms) Planned
African Region Burundi FSX EVD Border and airport SimEx Planned
South-East Asia Region Bhutan DR Internal airport Paro Planned
African Region Liberia 28 November 2018 to 2 December 2018 DR The purpose of the simulation exercise (SIMEX) is to test the RRTs and health system capacity to respond to a EVD outbreak. Conducted
African Region Chad 29 November 2018 TTX EVD Conducted
European Region Kyrgyzstan 13 May 2019 FSX Conducted
African Region Kenya 11 June 2019 to 14 June 2019 FSX BackgroundThe East African Community (EAC) region has experienced an increasing number of infectious disease outbreaks in the past, including Ebola, Rift Valley, Marburg and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, etc. In this regard, the EAC Secretariat is convening a cross-border Field Simulation Exercise (FSX) on 11-14 June 2019 at the border between Tanzania and Kenya (Namanga). The FSX is based on an EAC Sectoral Council of Ministers of Health decision1, taken in March 2015.The FSX is supported by the “Support to Pandemic Preparedness in the EAC Region” (PANPrep) project that the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH implements on behalf of the German Government. The World Health Organization (WHO) has been selected to lead and coordinate the planning, design, organisation, implementation and evaluation of the FSX. What is the purpose of the cross-border field simulation exercise?The purpose of the cross border FSX is to assess and further enhance multi-sectorial outbreak preparedness and response in the EAC region under a multi-sectorial One Health approach. It will test the operational capability of the regional and national contingency plans and standard operating procedures (SOPs) and will allow participants to familiarize themselves with the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders from different sectors and backgrounds who are involved in preparedness, mitigation and response. Furthermore, the FSX will be used to assess and identify strengths and weaknesses in coordination and collaboration mechanisms, emergency response deployment, logistics and administrative processes, risk and crisis communication (RCC) as well as emergency management and leadership. Findings from the FSX will be used to further improve preparedness and response capacities in the EAC region. What are the objectives of the cross-border field simulation exercise?The FSX will be characterized by actual response, mobilization of equipment and resources and commitment of staff. The FSX at Namanga will be conducted in a setting developed to be as realistic as possible, while ensuring a safe learning environment for all participants. It will include the actual deployment of resources required for coordination and response.The objectives of the FSX are to:1. Assess the use of early warning and event detection mechanisms at points of entry with emphasis on the Namanga border area between Kenya and Tanzania;2. Assess coordination mechanisms, command and control systems and information sharing channels between multiple sectors and countries; (e.g. activation of the EAC emergency structure, incident management systems and relevant emergency operations centres)3. Assess the deployment of national rapid response teams (RRT);4. Validate the activation and deployment of selected mobile laboratories;5. Assess animal and human cases investigation and management and functionality of selected veterinary and health facilities in the border area during a large scale outbreak of a RVF-like virus;6. Practise regional SOPs for cross-border pandemic preparedness and risk & crisis communication including community engagement;7. Evaluate selected preparedness and response measures at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) and Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA);8. Capture best practises and ensure transfer of lessons learned to the EAC community and other regional economic communities and to African regions; Which scenario will be used in the cross-border field simulation exercise?The selected scenario will simulate a cross border Rift Valley Fever-like virus outbreak, aggravated by environmental factors and with impact on humans and animals, lives and livelihoods, agriculture, trade and tourism, peace and security and the economy as a whole. Early warning, infections and deaths in animals and human beings will trigger the reporting and activation of national and regional preparedness and response mechanisms emphasising the importance of the One Health approach and of appropriate risk and crisis communication as well as cross border collaboration.Based on the recent need to prepare EAC Partner States for Ebola due to the current outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo, the fictitious component will feature a RVF virus that will mutate into a pathogen that can be transmitted between humans causing severe haemorrhagic fever resulting in increased numbers of cases and deaths. This will allow assessing and building EAC Secretariat’s and Partner States’ capacities to prepare and respond to an Ebola-like situation using the One Health approach.The scenario will be built and implemented around three stages namely:(1) Alert;(2) Event detection;(3) Response. Who will be participating in the cross-border field simulation exercise?The FSX is primarily targeted at 150 individuals from the EAC Secretariat and Partner States. This would primarily include individuals from EAC Secretariat (8), as well as Tanzania (65) and Kenya (65) from different levels including: Namanga as well as from national/regional levels who would perform the routine functions and tasks which they would perform during a real emergency response. Involved Partner States representatives from Burundi, Rwanda, South Sudan and Uganda will be participating as observers (12 in total, 3 per country). Furthermore, some international organisations and specialized institutions will support with the conduct and evaluation of the FSX, in order to identify strengths and weakness and to ensure broader lesson learning and sharing of best practises across the region.For more information, please visit the EAC website: https://www.eac.int/health/disease-prevention Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Egypt 12 December 2018 FX POE on EVD imported case Conducted
All Regions Portugal 13 November 2018 TTX This simulation exercise has as main objectives: to share good practices of collaboration between the public health sector and the military health services to jointly prepare and respond to public health emergencies; identify a shared vision for global health security according to a multisectoral perspective; contribute to and support Portuguese speaking countries in the development of action plans for global health security; discuss guiding principles for collaboration between military health services and the public health sector, as well as with other relevant sectors. Conducted
African Region United Republic of Tanzania 1 March 2019 to 31 March 2019 FSX EVD Preparedness Planned
African Region Rwanda 8 January 2019 to 11 January 2019 FSX EVD Preparedness Conducted
African Region Uganda 11 April 2019 to 12 April 2019 FSX EVD Preparedness Conducted
Western Pacific Region Mongolia 30 October 2018 to 31 October 2018 TTX Pan Stop Conducted
Western Pacific Region Philippines 28 November 2018 TTX INFOSAN SimEx Conducted
South-East Asia Region India 27 November 2018 TTX INFOSAN SimEx Conducted
African Region Democratic Republic of Congo 25 July 2018 FSX EVD SimEx Conducted
All Regions Switzerland 4 December 2018 to 6 December 2018 FX Validate National Public Health Emergency Operation Centre functions Conducted
European Region Germany 7 November 2018 to 8 November 2018 FSX Frankfurt Airport ICAO SimEx Conducted
European Region 18 November 2019 to 22 November 2019 FX Regional Functional Exercise - Joint Assessment and Detection of Events (JADE) Planned
European Region Denmark 22 October 2018 to 25 October 2018 TTX Joint EURO/ECDC Exercise on poliovirus containment breach preparedness and risk communication  Conducted
African Region Senegal 25 October 2016 to 27 October 2016 Training TTX Facilitators training Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Jordan 1 November 2016 to 30 November 2016 TTX, FX Cluster Conducted
European Region Bosnia and Herzegovina 24 September 2018 to 28 September 2018 Training TTX Training Module Conducted
European Region Switzerland 14 March 2018 to 15 March 2018 TTX To familiarize HWCOs with their roles and responsibilities in managing health emergencies Conducted
Western Pacific Region Viet Nam 25 April 2018 to 27 April 2018 TTX Validate advance national pandemic preparedness Conducted
Western Pacific Region Lao People's Democratic Republic 25 April 2018 to 27 April 2018 TTX Validate advance national pandemic preparedness Conducted
African Region Democratic Republic of Congo 28 June 2018 TTX EVD SimEx to test the readiness of team and equipment in Kinshasa Conducted
African Region Rwanda 23 May 2018 TTX EVD SimExAssist the country in becoming as operationally prepared as possible to detect, investigate and report potential EVD cases effectively and safely and to mount an effective response to prevent a larger outbreak.  Conducted
WHO-HQ United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 13 September 2018 to 14 September 2018 TTX Polio SimExThe purpose of the simulation is to advance the discussion of preparedness for outbreaks occurring some years after OPV cessation, and which have relevance for some near-term decisions around OPV stockpiles. Conducted
African Region Kenya 4 September 2018 to 5 September 2018 TTX Exercise report for Cross Border SimEx Table Top Exercise in Arusha, Tanzania. A fictitious outbreak of rift valley fever in Kenya and Tanzania  Conducted East Africa Community FINAL BOOK.pdf
African Region United Republic of Tanzania 13 August 2018 to 17 August 2018 TTX EVD SimEx Conducted
African Region United Republic of Tanzania 4 September 2018 to 5 September 2018 TTX Cross Border SimEx testing regional responses to public health emergencies.   Rift valley fever used as primary exercise vehicle  Conducted East Africa Community FINAL BOOK.pdf
African Region South Sudan 13 August 2018 to 15 August 2018 TTX EVD SimEx Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Papua New Guinea 17 September 2018 to 21 September 2018 Test the response plan, incl IMS systems  through a water/food borne disease.   Part of food safety and security training for forthcoming APEC meeting to be held in Port Moresby in November.   Simulation in two parts, Food safety (Listeriosis Outbreak) and Security (deliberate poisoning event) Conducted
European Region Kyrgyzstan 2 August 2018 TTX Food Borne SimEx during Mass gathering Conducted
Western Pacific Region Viet Nam 1 May 2017 to 31 May 2017 DR Drill exercises on coordinated response to Avian Influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in Hanoi, Quang Ninh, Thai Nguyen and Lang Son provinces. Conducted
African Region Uganda 8 May 2017 to 12 May 2017 Training Exercise undertaken on the 26th October Conducted
African Region Uganda 7 October 2016 TTX Multihazard plan validation Conducted
Western Pacific Region Mongolia 1 September 2017 to 30 September 2017 DR Exercise to test response to chemical emreegencies  Conducted
Western Pacific Region Mongolia 1 May 2017 to 5 May 2017 FX Gobi Wolf 2017, a five-day disaster response exercise focused on interagency coordination.  Mongolia’s National Emergency Management Agency hosts the exercise with support from Mongolia’s armed forces. Conducted
Western Pacific Region Mongolia 1 August 2016 to 30 September 2016 DR Simulation exercise to test the Incident Management System in Umnugobi and Uvurkhangai provinces was held on August and September 2016.  Conducted
Western Pacific Region Mongolia 19 July 2016 to 25 July 2016 TTX  cross-border water safety programme  Conducted
Western Pacific Region Mongolia 1 June 2016 to 30 June 2016 FX Plague SimEx Conducted
Western Pacific Region Lao People's Democratic Republic 29 November 2017 to 30 November 2017 FX Avian Influenza exercise in Champasak Conducted
Western Pacific Region Lao People's Democratic Republic 22 March 2016 to 24 March 2016 TTX Mekong Basin Diseases Surveillance -Table Top Exercise (MBDS-TTX) Conducted
Western Pacific Region Lao People's Democratic Republic 1 March 2017 to 31 March 2017 FSX Avian Influenza exercise in Luang Prabang Conducted
Western Pacific Region China DR NHFPC Health Emergency Skill Competition Conducted
African Region Ghana 10 October 2016 to 14 October 2016 TTX RRT Greater Accra Regional Exercise Cholera Conducted
Western Pacific Region Cambodia 23 November 2017 TTX Influenza Simulation Exercise Conducted
Western Pacific Region Cambodia 23 November 2016 TTX Simulation exercise for Risk Communication capacity on Zika Conducted
Western Pacific Region Cambodia 16 November 2017 to 17 November 2017 TTX  Inter-Ministry Risk Communication Tabletop Exercise  Conducted
Western Pacific Region Cambodia 14 November 2017 to 21 November 2017 TTX Tabletop Exercise on Public Health Emergency Preparedness at Points of Entry Conducted
African Region United Republic of Tanzania 14 May 2018 TTX Ebola SimEx. The purpose of the exercise was to test plans and procedures for national level response activation and to practice response coordination using IMS at national level.The objectives: - To test plans and procedures for national level response activation- To practice response coordination using IMS at national level Conducted
African Region Togo 20 August 2018 to 24 August 2018 Training TTX Training moduleSenior level involvement (ministers and Senior Advisors) Conducted
European Region Tajikistan 10 August 2018 to 11 August 2018 TTX Flood with Cholera / AWD Conducted
Western Pacific Region Philippines 3 December 2018 to 7 December 2018 FX IHR cystal communication exercise & EIS access Conducted
South-East Asia Region Myanmar 8 August 2019 to 9 August 2019 TTX AimTo rehearse the incident response of the Myanmar MoHS through a functional command post exercise of a national disease outbreak. Objectives1.            To exercise the activation, interaction and operation of the MoHS’s Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) during a simulated outbreak2.            To identify areas of best practice and for further training and development in the planning, preparedness and readiness of the MOHS for future outbreaks3.            To review and assess the effectiveness of MOHS’s risk communications processes and arrangements to warn and inform the public during a public health incident  pandemic influenza Planned
European Region Denmark 22 October 2018 to 25 October 2018 TTX Joint WHO/Europe and ECDC exercise on poliovirus containment breach preparedness and risk communication,  Conducted
European Region Denmark 12 November 2018 to 16 November 2018 FX IHR NFP SimEx (Comms & EIS Access) Conducted
European Region Switzerland 27 April 2018 TTX Pandemic Vacination SimExAn internal WHO landscape analysis will be done to assess the current state of readiness to deploy vaccines during a future pandemic. This exercise’s primary objectives are to:A) Highlight strengths, progress and gaps in WHO’s pandemic influenza vaccine deployment readiness/ capacities since 2009 (*this exercise will not cover deployment of antivirals or diagnostics); B) Identify resources available for a pandemic influenza vaccine deployment repository; andC) Articulate next steps to improve WHO’s readiness /capacities for pandemic influenza vaccine deployment. Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Morocco 16 January 2018 to 18 January 2018 Training TTX module Conducted
African Region Ghana 26 April 2018 to 28 April 2018 TTX  AFRO Regional Programme Management Meeting 56The general objective of the simulation exercise is to increase level of WR’s knowledge on health emergency preparedness and response in line with the new WHE reform.Specifically, the simulation exercise will:I. Allow participants to gain an understanding of IHR (2005) core capacities including compliance in order to facilitate a timely and effective Public Health emergency responseII. Increase awareness about WHO’s Emergency Response Framework and related tools and SOPs, as well as the WHO IMS and it functionsIII. Provide WRs the with an opportunity to discuss their roles, responsibilities and in the context of Public Health emergency response involving multiple sectors/partners IV. Familiarize the participants with global level coordination and collaboration in the context of a Public Health event requiring a multi sectoral, multi-agency and whole-of-government response.  Conducted
South-East Asia Region Thailand 29 January 2018 TTX Pandemic Simulation  Conducted
European Region Kyrgyzstan 16 April 2018 to 20 April 2018 TTX Flooding with AWD/Cholera Conducted
Western Pacific Region Cambodia 25 April 2018 to 27 April 2018 TTX Validate advance national pandemic preparedness Conducted
Region of the Americas Argentina 4 October 2018 TTX G20 Health SimEx (AMR) Conducted
African Region Senegal 8 May 2018 to 9 May 2018 FX Validate Public Health Emergency Operation Centre functions Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Pakistan 28 January 2019 to 30 January 2019 TTX Laboratory Exercise Conducted
African Region Nigeria 11 March 2018 to 17 March 2018 FSX IHR FSX  Yellow fever outbreak Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Jordan 28 January 2018 to 2 February 2018 TTX Validate Public Health Emergency Operation Centre functions Conducted
European Region Uzbekistan 23 November 2017 to 24 November 2017 Conducted
European Region Switzerland 1 November 2017 TTX To familiarize HWCOs with their roles and responsibilities in managing health emergencies, and demonstrate the linkages between health system strengthening and emergency preparedness and response.   Conducted
African Region South Africa 6 November 2017 to 10 November 2017 TTX The overall aim of the SADC Health Emergency Simulation Exercise is to promote awareness of the key issues surrounding global and regional health crisis management including response and to generate sustainable support among SADC Member States for the continuous improvement of epidemic preparedness and response capacities at the national and regional level Conducted
South-East Asia Region Indonesia 30 July 2017 to 4 August 2017 Orientation Pandemic Rsiks Management training Conducted
African Region Cameroon 7 September 2017 to 15 September 2017 FSX Cholera response Conducted
African Region Zimbabwe 22 May 2018 to 23 May 2018 TTX The purpose of the table top exercise (TTX) is to test Zimbabwe’s preparedness and response capacities as part of the IHR core capacities.Specific objectives1. To discuss roles and functions in the context of an infectious disease outbreak that requires a government response including EOC activation.2. Familiarize participants with coordination and communication mechanisms in the context of a Public Health event requiring a multi sectoral, multi-agency response.3. To acquaint participants with IHR (2005) core capacities in order to facilitate an appropriate and effective Public Health emergency response. Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Egypt 21 November 2017 FSX For the arrival of an aircraft with a potentially infected cases by an epidemic disease (public health emergency) with the occurrence of a death on board an aircraft coming from a country with a pandemic disease, to an unaffected countryThrough a transit country unaffected by any recent epidemiological outbreaks Conducted
European Region Georgia 21 August 2017 to 22 August 2017 TTX To practice the regional component of the response system in addressing the regional impact (including a high number of IDPs and refugees) of a potential large-scale violent conflict Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Occupied Palestinian Territory 4 March 2018 to 9 March 2018 TTX Validate I-A Contingency Plan Conducted
African Region Uganda 25 October 2017 to 27 October 2017 TTX GHSA, Planning mission conducted 11-15 September.Exercise undertaken on the 26th OctoberPurpose of the exercise was to enable information sharing through a Q&A structured session with senior level involvement (Ministers and Senior Advisors)Objective to insitgate discussion and information sharing within the diverse groups Conducted
African Region Benin 17 October 2017 to 19 October 2017 Training TTX module. Conducted
European Region Armenia 16 October 2017 to 17 October 2017 TTX Training on Risk Communications.   Multiple hazard including earthquake leading to a radiological release from the countries nuclear reactor.  Exercise to test Risk Communications Conducted
African Region Ghana 1 August 2017 TTX Familiarize Participants with the business continutiy Plan (BCP) Conducted
African Region Uganda 11 May 2017 FX  To test and evaluate the capabilities of the Ugandan PHEOC in the management of the different phases of an emergency response as well as to inform the forthcoming JEE process. Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Pakistan 18 September 2017 to 22 September 2017 TTX Mass gathering TTX Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Iraq 19 August 2017 to 25 August 2017 TTX Mass gatherings TTX Conducted
South-East Asia Region Indonesia 24 October 2017 to 26 October 2017 TTX To improve the understanding and identify areas for collaboration between the public health sector and the military health services to jointly prepare for and respond to public health emergencies.- Clarify roles and responsibilities between public health sector and military health services in a natural and deliberate event - Recognize the importance of strong coordination mechanisms- Examine areas for collaboration in emergency preparedness and response - Identify communication and information sharing mechanisms. Conducted
European Region Albania 20 July 2019 to 23 July 2019 TTX the flood Conducted
European Region Turkmenistan 26 March 2017 to 31 March 2017 FX To test coordination and communication between health service stakeholders in the management of a suspect case of a non-endemic disease at the Olympic Village Games Conducted
European Region Turkmenistan 26 March 2017 to 31 March 2017 FSX To test the management of a suspect case of a non-endemic disease at the Olympic Village of the Asian Indoor Games from detection to admission at a designated hospital in Ashgabat.  Conducted
Eastern Mediterranean Region Tunisia 11 July 2017 to 13 July 2017 TTX OIE exercise: criminal acquisition and release of an animal pathogen Conducted
African Region United Republic of Tanzania 30 March 2017 to 31 March 2017 TTX Test the national Cholera Plan Conducted
African Region Senegal 15 May 2015 FSX EVD Response Conducted
African Region Mauritania 16 November 2017 to 17 November 2017 FSX RRT cross border Ebola response Conducted
South-East Asia Region Indonesia 18 September 2017 to 20 September 2017 FSX Pandemic response (coordination) Conducted
WHO-HQ Hungary 21 June 2017 to 22 June 2017 FX To evaluate I-A response coordination in a nuclear emergency Conducted
WHO-HQ Germany 19 May 2017 to 20 May 2017 TTX The Simulation Exercise aims to raise awareness of the challenges arising during international health crises and to introduce key concepts and conditions for their successful control.  Conducted
African Region Uganda 25 January 2017 DR  To practice and train the operational readiness of the National Rapid Response Team (NRRT) for Health Emergencies. Conducted
European Region Turkmenistan 9 December 2016 TTX To develop and familiarize participants with plans for the detection and management of symptomatic individuals arriving at Ashgabat International Airport during the Asian Indoor Games Conducted
African Region Togo 12 September 2016 to 16 September 2016 TTX EPR validatoin Conducted
African Region Togo 10 February 2016 TTX EVD Response (IMS) Conducted
European Region Switzerland 27 February 2017 to 1 March 2017 TTX WR role in Emergencies and WHO Emergency Response Framework II Conducted
European Region Switzerland 17 March 2016 TTX WHO Emergency Response Framework & IMS Conducted
African Region South Sudan 13 April 2015 to 18 April 2015 TTX EVD Response Conducted
African Region Sierra Leone 14 November 2015 to 29 November 2015 TTX Rapid response mechanism Conducted
African Region Sierra Leone 1 September 2016 to 31 October 2016 TTX EVD Response Plan Inter-Agency Coordination Conducted
African Region Sierra Leone 1 August 2016 to 31 August 2016 TTX EVD Response Plan MOH/WHO Conducted
African Region Senegal 17 November 2014 to 21 November 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Senegal 15 June 2015 TTX, DR EOC (DR/TTX) Conducted
Western Pacific Region Philippines 8 December 2016 to 9 December 2016 FX IHR communication exercise & EIS access Conducted
African Region Niger 14 December 2015 to 15 December 2015 FSX EVD Response  Conducted
African Region Mauritania 16 December 2016 to 17 December 2016 DR, FSX Assess the Health Centre (CHN) ability to diagnose and manage a case of hermorrhagic fever and coordination with MoH for case management (DR/FSX) Conducted
African Region Mauritania 2 December 2015 to 3 December 2015 FX Ebola Treatment Centre (DR/FX) Conducted
African Region Mauritania 4 October 2015 to 10 October 2015 EVD Response Conducted
African Region Mauritania 10 November 2014 to 16 November 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Mali 25 April 2016 to 5 May 2016 TTX Meningitis Response Conducted
African Region Mali 20 October 2014 to 24 October 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Mali 20 October 2014 to 24 October 2014 FSX Hospital-based patient transfer Conducted
African Region Mali 29 July 2015 to 30 July 2015 DR, FX EOC & EVD Response (FX/DR) Conducted
African Region Liberia 20 June 2016 to 24 June 2016 Orientation Exercise Overview + How to set up an exercise programme Conducted
African Region Kenya 17 October 2016 to 19 October 2016 Training TTX Facilitators training Conducted
South-East Asia Region Indonesia 27 June 2016 to 29 June 2016 TTX Preparedness Framework Conducted
African Region Guinea Bissau 1 May 2016 DR RRT Conducted
African Region Guinea 23 May 2016 to 27 May 2016 TTX RRT Conducted
African Region Guinea 17 March 2016 to 23 March 2016 TTX RRT Conducted
African Region Ghana 10 October 2016 to 14 October 2016 TTX RRT Eastern Regional Exercise Cholera Conducted
African Region Ghana 10 October 2016 to 14 October 2016 TTX RRT Brong Ahafo Regional Exercise Cholera Conducted
African Region Ghana 10 October 2016 to 14 October 2016 TTX RRT Western Regional Exercise Cholera Conducted
African Region Ghana 7 June 2015 to 12 June 2015 FSX Management of confirmed EVD Patient Conducted
African Region Ghana 5 July 2016 to 7 July 2016 Orientation Exercise Overview + How to set up an exercise programme Conducted
African Region Ghana 4 September 2016 to 9 September 2016 TTX Chemical Exercise Conducted
African Region Ghana 13 October 2015 to 15 October 2015 FX EOC+EVD Response  Conducted
African Region Ghana 10 November 2014 to 15 November 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Ghana 12 September 2016 to 15 September 2016 TTX Laboratory Exercise Conducted
African Region Ghana 9 June 2015 DR EVD Response (RRT focus) Conducted
African Region Gambia 17 November 2014 to 22 November 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Gambia 13 March 2015 to 18 March 2015 FSX Management of confirmed EVD Patient Conducted
African Region Gambia 1 February 2016 to 5 February 2016 TTX IMS Conducted
African Region Ethiopia 1 December 2014 to 8 December 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Ethiopia 1 May 2016 DR Conducted at Addis Internationa airport and ETU treatment center in Addis Ababa. Conducted
European Region Denmark 11 February 2017 TTX WR role in Emergencies and WHO Emergency Response Framework II Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 8 July 2015 to 9 July 2015 FSX EVD Response (Guiglo and Toulepleu) Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 6 October 2015 to 10 October 2015 FX EVD Response (ICM) Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 3 February 2016 to 5 February 2016 FSX EVD Response (Airport + RRT) Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 27 October 2014 to 31 October 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 20 July 2015 to 25 July 2015 FSX Coordination Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 11 May 2015 to 15 May 2015 FX EOC Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 30 November 2016 TTX Laboratory Exercise Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 1 November 2015 Coordination Conducted
African Region Chad 9 May 2016 to 13 May 2016 TTX Coordination Conducted
African Region Central African Republic 2 December 2014 to 8 December 2014 TTX EVD (imported + endogenous) Conducted
African Region Central African Republic 2 December 2014 to 8 December 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Central African Republic 10 November 2014 to 13 November 2014 FX Conducted
African Region Central African Republic 10 November 2014 to 13 November 2014 TTX Conducted
African Region Central African Republic 10 May 2016 to 13 May 2016 TTX Coordination (Rabies) Conducted
African Region Cameroon 10 November 2014 to 14 November 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Cameroon 10 November 2014 to 14 November 2014 FSX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Cameroon 1 January 2015 Conducted
African Region Burkina Faso 3 December 2014 to 7 December 2014 FSX EVD Response Conducted
African Region Burkina Faso 2 May 2016 to 6 May 2016 TTX Meningitis Conducted
African Region Burkina Faso 17 November 2014 to 24 November 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Burkina Faso 17 November 2014 to 24 November 2014 DR PPE Conducted
African Region Burkina Faso 14 July 2014 to 18 July 2014 Pandemic response Conducted
African Region Burkina Faso 26 October 2016 to 27 October 2016 FSX RRT (detetction, mobilization, case management, risk communication & coordination) Conducted
African Region Benin 17 November 2014 to 24 November 2014 TTX EVD Response (Checklist) Conducted
African Region Benin 10 November 2015 to 12 November 2015 DR Safe burial Conducted
African Region Benin 10 November 2015 to 12 November 2015 FX Coordination Conducted
African Region Benin 23 March 2015 TTX Coordination Conducted
African Region Democratic Republic of Congo 5 May 2016 TTX Yellow Fever Response (Coordination) Conducted
African Region Cote d'Ivoire 30 November 2016 TTX Laboratory Exercise Conducted

Preparedness cycle

Simulation exercises enable people to practice their roles and functions, and to gain experience in emergency settings. They are used to identify and eliminate issues before an actual emergency occurs and are therefore a key component in the emergency preparedness cycle. Exercise recommendations and corrective actions are essential to improve response systems and mechanisms to effectively manage emergencies. The components of the preparedness cycle are: planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating and taking corrective action. 

After Action Reviews/Lessons Learned activities from real events also feed into the cycle as illustrated below:

Simulation exercise types

Generally, there are four fundamental types of exercises that can be split in two categories:

 

Discussion-based exercises:

Table Top exercises (TTX): A Table Top exercise is a facilitated discussion of an emergency situation, generally in an informal, low-stress environment. It is designed to elicit constructive participant discussion, to identify and resolve problems and refine existing operational plans. This is the only type of simulation exercise that does not require an existing response plan in place.

 

Operations-based exercises:

 

Drill (DR): A drill is a coordinated, supervised exercise activity, normally used to test or train a single specific operation or function in a repeated fashion. A drill aims to practice and perfect one small part of the response plan and should be as realistic as possible, employing any equipment or apparatus for the specific function.

 

Functional exercises (FX): A functional exercise is a fully simulated interactive exercise that tests the capability of an organization to respond to a simulated event. The exercise tests multiple functions of the organization’s operational plan. It is a coordinated response to a situation in a time pressured, realistic situation. A functional exercise focuses on the coordination, integration, and interaction of an organization’s policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities before, during, or after the simulated event.

 


Full-scale/field exercises (FSX): A full-scale exercise simulates a real event as closely as possible and is designed to evaluate the operational capability of emergency management systems in a highly stressful environment, simulating actual response conditions. This includes the mobilization and movement of emergency personnel, equipment and resources. Ideally, the full-scale exercise should test and evaluate most functions of the emergency management plan or operational plan. Differing from the FX, a full-scale exercise typically involves multiple agencies and participants physically deployed in an exercise field location.

 


Field exercises: See full-scale exercise. A field exercise is one form of full-scale exercise, focusing on more specific capacities or series of capacities, such as procedures for Rapid Response Teams (RRT), laboratory analysis or other sample collection and transport.

Exercises are not one-time events, but should be undertaken as part of a carefully designed exercise program which ensures a common strategic objective is addressed. A comprehensive exercise program is made up of progressively complex exercises, which build upon the previous, until they are as close to reality as possible. This ‘building-block approach’ should start with basic exercises that test specific aspects of preparedness and response, followed by progressively complex exercises requiring additional preparation time and resources.

 

The figure below provides an illustration of the level of preparation and capacity needed for each exercise type.