The IHR Monitoring and Evaluation Framework provides an overview of approaches to review implementation of country core public health capacities under the IHR (2005). The Framework ensures the mutual accountability of States Parties and the Secretariat for global public health security through transparent reporting and dialogue.
The framework comprises four components:
In 2016, States Parties continued to provide information to the IHR Secretariat. Since 2010, 195 States Parties have reported at least once to WHO using the annual reporting questionnaire. As of the 28 of February 2017, 120 of 196 States Parties had completed the questionnaire sent in July 2016. Globally, progress has been made across the 13 capacities since 2010, particularly in surveillance, response, and zoonoses, but the overall average scores suggest further efforts are urgently needed in the areas of human resources, capacities at points of entry, chemical events and radiation emergencies.
Under the IHR (2005) all States Parties are required to have or develop and maintain minimum core public health capacities, as stipulated in Article 54. Data from 2015 show that States Parties are making good progress on a number of core capacities, notably in the areas of surveillance, zoonotic diseases, response, coordination, laboratory, legislation policy, and risk communication, and can be found in the Global Health Observatory.
The Joint External Evaluation (JEE) is part of the IHR Monitoring and Evaluation Framework and is a voluntary, multi-sectoral process to assess country capacity to prevent, detect, and rapidly respond to public health risks. The JEE allows countries to identify the most urgent needs within their health security system; to prioritize opportunities for enhanced preparedness, detection and response capacity, including setting national priorities; and to allocate resources based on the findings.
Simulation exercises are training and quality assurance tools, which provide an evidence-based assessment for the monitoring, testing and strengthening of functional capacities to respond to outbreaks and public health emergencies. As a training tool, they allow participants to learn and practice emergency response procedures in a safe and controlled environment. As a quality assurance tool, exercises test and evaluate emergency policies, plans and procedures.
An After Action Review (AAR) is a qualitative review of actions taken to respond to an event as a means of identifying best practices, lessons and gaps in capacity as part a process of continuous improvement and learning. An AAR seeks to identify what worked well and how best practices can be institutionalized and shared with relevant stakeholders; and what areas need strengthening though implementing corrective actions.