National Action Planning for Health Security (NAPHS) is a country owned, multi-year, planning process that can accelerate the implementation of IHR core capacities, and is based on a One Health for all-hazards, whole-of-government approach. It captures national priorities for health security, brings sectors together, identifies partners and allocates resources for health security capacity development. Since 2016, WHO has been working closely with many countries and its partners to support the development of NAPHS. The WHO secretariat developed the NAPHS framework to consolidate technical guidance to countries for the development and implementation capturing feedback from countries, regions and partners. It provides guidance to identify evidence-based priority actions that can be implemented quickly to have immediate impact as well as the long-term actions for sustainable capacity development to improve health security.
The NAPHS Framework is intended as a flexible, 3-step approach to help countries organize, develop and implement a planor planning processthat addresses critical aspects of health security.
Step 1 - Inception: Consists of a desktop review of all existing national plans and capacity assessments, stakeholder analysis, SWOT analysis and prioritization of technical areas of action.
Step 2 - Development: Consists of identification and prioritization of activities within the technical areas based on risk assessment, monitoring and evaluation framework, detailed costing of activities, mapping resources and endorsement of the plan.
Step 3 - Implementation: Consists of reprioritization of the plan for operations based on resource mapping; integration into national health sector planning; monitoring, evaluation and reporting; and updating of the plan periodically. This step leads into implementation of the plan and continued mobilization of additional resources for the implementation as well as monitoring and evaluation and reporting.
The National Action Plan for Health Security (NAPHS) is an essential next step to the process of monitoring and evaluation of Member States’ IHR core capacities. The implementation of NAPHS enables the country to address gaps found in the country assessments through structured actions supported by stakeholders at the national, regional and global level.
The NAPHS guides the Member States in building capacity so that they are better prepared and operationally ready to manage public health risks and events towards better protecting populations. The plan ensures the coordination of stakeholders’ activities, resource allocation, meeting the benchmarks, the timeline of the implementation of the plan and its monitoring and evaluation over the five years’ period.
As adopted in the WHA 2016, the IHR review committee in its report (WHA A69/21) has made recommendations, particularly for the development of a National Action Plan:
“By December 2017, each State Party should have a prioritized national core capacity development and maintenance plan (a “National Action Plan”), with the support of international partners as needed. This plan should be approved by respective governments in consultation with the regional office, and should have indicators and targets for reporting to WHO.”
“National Action Plans (see Recommendation 2.1.5) should be updated by States Parties within one year of the JEET, with support from WHO regional and country offices as appropriate. This Plan should address identified gaps in capacity in accordance with their national and IHR public health priorities. To fill capacity gaps that cannot be addressed using national resources, States Parties should develop active partnerships with partner countries or other international development partners (see Recommendation 12).”
Key principles on developing effective and sustainable National Action Plan for Health Security
One Health for all-hazards, multisectoral planning for health security.
Country-led, dynamic, adaptable to country context, with WHO technical support.
Aligned with existing plans relevant to IHR (i.e., AMR, PPP, OHP) and integrated into the national health sector plan.