Topic Page

Preconception, pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care

Care during childbirth

This section includes RHL summaries of published systematic reviews on various aspects of pregnancy and childbirth, including preconception care, management of miscarriage, antenatal care, medical problems in pregnancy, disorders that might affect the unborn baby, complications arising during pregnancy, the induction of labour, and the care of the mother and newborn during and immediately after childbirth.

Care during labour - 1st stage

Nepal. In a health care facility, a pregnant woman sits in a bed.

Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour

 A midwife examining a pregnant woman during labour, Uganda.

Vaginal chlorhexidine during labour to prevent early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection

Two health workers prepare a woman for delivery in a delivery room, Niger.

Digital vaginal examination for routine assessment and identification of delay in active labour

Babies with specific conditions during labour

Pregnant woman drinking water while lying in a hospital bed.

Antibiotics for meconium-stained amniotic fluid in labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections

Mother sitting in hospital bed, watching new born baby. India

Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour

Abnormal presentations and positions of the baby

External cephalic version

Interventions for helping to turn term breech babies to head first presentation when using external cephalic version

Care during labour - 2nd stage

Pregnant woman being monitored by electronic fetal monitor in hospital

Fetal intrapartum pulse oximetry for fetal assessment in labour

Woman on delivery table receives fundal pressure

Fundal pressure during the second stage of labour


Symphysiotomy for feto-pelvic disproportion

Perineal trauma

A surgeon from Mozambique performs a repair for the surgical treatment of obstetric fistula.

Methods of repair for obstetric anal sphincter injury

Newborn baby who has just been delivered is handed to his mother by the hospital midwife.

Antibiotic prophylaxis for third- and fourth-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth

Medio lateral episiotomy graphic

Absorbable suture materials for primary repair of episiotomy and second degree tears

Caesarean section

Vaginal preparation with antiseptic solution before caesarean section for preventing postoperative infections

Different classes of antibiotics given to women routinely for preventing infection at caesarean section

Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section

Care during labour - 3rd stage

Woman in sitting position receiving oxytocin.

Active versus expectant management for women in the third stage of labour

Controlled cord traction for the third stage of labour

Packages of care as active management to prevent delays in active labour