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Preconception, pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care

Care during childbirth

This section includes RHL summaries of published systematic reviews on various aspects of pregnancy and childbirth, including preconception care, management of miscarriage, antenatal care, medical problems in pregnancy, disorders that might affect the unborn baby, complications arising during pregnancy, the induction of labour, and the care of the mother and newborn during and immediately after childbirth.

WHO recommendation on respectful maternity care during labour and childbirth

Woman in labour

WHO recommendation on effective communication between maternity care providers and women in labour

Woman in hospital having a contraction while supported by her partner.

WHO recommendation on companionship during labour and childbirth

Antenatal care visit

WHO recommendation on continuity of care for a positive childbirth experience

Assistant nurse prepares surgical instruments before a c-section surgery.

WHO recommendation on vaginal cleansing with povidone-iodine immediately before caesarean section

Care during labour - 1st stage

WHO recommendation on epidural analgesia for pain relief during labour

WHO recommendation on opioid analgesia for pain relief during labour

WHO recommendation on relaxation techniques for pain management during labour

Babies with specific conditions during labour

Pregnant woman drinking water while lying in a hospital bed.

Antibiotics for meconium-stained amniotic fluid in labour for preventing maternal and neonatal infections

Mother sitting in hospital bed, watching new born baby. India

Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour

Abnormal presentations and positions of the baby

External cephalic version

Interventions for helping to turn term breech babies to head first presentation when using external cephalic version

Care during labour - 2nd stage

Pregnant woman being monitored by electronic fetal monitor in hospital

Fetal intrapartum pulse oximetry for fetal assessment in labour

Woman on delivery table receives fundal pressure

Fundal pressure during the second stage of labour

Rapid versus stepwise negative pressure application for vacuum extraction-assisted vaginal delivery

Perineal trauma

A surgeon from Mozambique performs a repair for the surgical treatment of obstetric fistula.

Methods of repair for obstetric anal sphincter injury

Newborn baby who has just been delivered is handed to his mother by the hospital midwife.

Antibiotic prophylaxis for third- and fourth-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth

Medio lateral episiotomy graphic

Absorbable suture materials for primary repair of episiotomy and second degree tears

Caesarean section

WHO recommendation on the optimal mode of birth for women in refractory preterm labour

Vial line up

Different classes of antibiotics given to women routinely for preventing infection at caesarean section

Medical practitioners perform a caesarean section.

Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section

Care during labour - 3rd stage

Preparing an umbilical vein injection

Umbilical vein injection for the routine management of third stage of labour

WHO recommendation on the use of uterine packing for the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage

WHO recommendation on cord traction for the removal of the placenta in caesarean section