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Preconception, pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care

This section includes RHL summaries of published systematic reviews on various aspects of pregnancy and childbirth, including preconception care, management of miscarriage, antenatal care, medical problems in pregnancy, disorders that might affect the unborn baby, complications arising during pregnancy, the induction of labour, and the care of the mother and newborn during and immediately after childbirth.

Miscarriage

Injection vaccine closeup

Immunotherapy for recurrent miscarriage

A young woman is aided by her mother and a nurse as she goes into early labour and miscarries her baby.

Expectant care versus surgical treatment for miscarriage

A doctor uses  a foetal stethoscope to examine a pregnant woman during a routine prenatal check-up, Pakistan.

Medical treatment for early fetal death (less than 24 weeks)

Antenatal care

A health worker performs an ultrasound scan on a pregnant woman in Senegal.

WHO Recommendation on the use of ultrasound before 24 weeks gestation

A maternal and child health aide explains to a young pregnant woman the dosage schedule for her iron supplements

WHO recommendation on intermittent oral iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnant women

A health worker instructs a pregnant pregnant on how to take iron and folic acid supplements

WHO Recommendation on daily oral iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnant women

Medical problems during pregnancy

A glass of water and capsules

Micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV infection

A HIV positive woman prepares to take her ARV medicine, Uganda.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treating HIV infection in ART-eligible pregnant women

Disorders affecting the unborn baby

A health worker performs an ultrasound scan on a pregnant woman in Senegal.

WHO Recommendation on the use of ultrasound before 24 weeks gestation

Pregnant woman getting ultrasound from doctor

Routine ultrasound in late pregnancy (after 24 weeks’ gestation)

A medical doctor performs an ultrasound scan on a pregnant woman in Rwanda.

Ultrasound for fetal assessment in early pregnancy

Induction of labour

Woman in labour stretching her back while seated on the edge of the bed.

Oral misoprostol for induction of labour

A health worker is measuring sugar level of a patient.

Induction of labour in women with gestational diabetes

Pregnant woman receiving intravenous oxytocin.

Methods of term labour induction for women with a previous cesarean section

Postpartum care

WHO recommendations on health systems and organization of care for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage

WHO recommendations on prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in caesarean section

WHO recommendations on the use of uterotonics for the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH)