Actions in support of anaemia prevention and control must be monitored and evaluated to test and assess program effectiveness, justify the continuation or modification of interventions and provide feedback at all levels. Monitoring of an ongoing program is continuous and aims to provide the management and other stakeholders with early indications of progress (or lack thereof) in the achievement of results and objectives. Evaluation is a periodic exercise that attempts to systematically and objectively assess progress towards and the achievement of a program's objectives or goals. Because progress in anaemia prevention and control depends on the achievement of behavioural aims and objectives, monitoring and evaluation of behavioural indicators should be given special attention.
A monitoring and evaluation plan should be developed to provide a standardized framework on how needed information will be collected, processed, analysed, interpreted, shared and used. All organizations working in the field of anaemia prevention and control should follow the same monitoring and evaluation plan to ensure comparability. It is particularly important to ensure the consistent use of indicators for monitoring and evaluating trends in anaemia prevention and control. Where possible, monitoring indicators should be incorporated into existing health information systems. Outcome and impact indicators can be included in surveys such as the Bangladesh Health and Demographic Survey, Child Nutrition Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey.
Research, including operations research, is needed to determine the factors that contribute to anaemia and to identify cost-effective approaches to its prevention and control for evidence-based advocacy and programme implementation.
BROAD PLAN OF ACTION
3.6.1 Develop a monitoring and evaluation framework/plan to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of IYCF interventions:
Select a standard set of input, process, output and impact indicators, including behavioural indicators
For each indicator, identify criteria and targets; trigger points for remedial action; data collection methodology, and types and sources of data.
3.11.2 Incorporate IYCF indicators into existing information systems by modifying monitoring and reporting formats and training health service providers to collect monitoring data as part of their routine activities
3.11.3 Review the monitoring data at the sub-district, district and national level and provide constant feedback to stakeholders for appropriate action.3
.11.4 Conduct periodic evaluations of the impact of interventions on infant and young child practices every 2-3 years
3.11.5 Identify priority research gaps to improve the design of interventions and programmes, and institutions which can help, technically and/or financially, to conduct and/or support the needed research.
3.11.6 Conduct assessments, operations research and evaluations of interventions related to infant and young child feeding practices.
3.11.7 Disseminate results of research, and revise strategies, interventions and guidelines in response to new knowledge and programme experiences and outcomes.