Action - The Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Control Programme - Iron supplementation - Pregnant women (PW)

Programme: The Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Control Programme

Programme description

The components were counselling for breastfeeding and complementary feeding; vitamin A campaigns; iron in pregnancy; hygiene, sanitation and deworming for kindergartens; growth monitoring; and nutrition products for malnourished children.

Programme type

Large scale programmes


By 2005 an estimated 100 000 CHNWs (nutrition collaborators) were in place for an intensity of approximately 1 CHNW per 70 households, i.e. 75:1000 households. Resource intensity was about US$ 0.70/household per year, excluding district and commune costs.


WHO (2013) Essential Nutrition Actions – Improving maternal, newborn, infant and young child health and nutrition, which provides a compact of WHO guidance on nutrition interventions targeting the first 1000 days of life. Part I presents the interventions currently recommended by WHO, summarizes the rationale and the evidence, and describes the actions require to implement them. Part II provides an analysis of community-based interventions aimed at improving nutrition and indicates how effective interventions can be delivered in an integrated fashion. It shows how the essential nutrition actions described in the first part have been implemented in large-scale programmes in various settings, what the outcomes have been, and to examine the evidence for attribution of changes in nutritional outcomes to programme activities. Part II also describes findings from cash transfer programmes. This summary of PEM Contro, Programme is retrieved from the ENA Part II where PEM Control Programme is one of 32 large-scale community-based programs that has been reviewed in detail and evaluated.


Start date:

Target group: 
Pregnant women (PW)
Coverage level (%): 
Covering 100% of communes with more than 10 000 health stations
Outcome indicator(s): 


M&E system: 

<p>Repeated surveys and from 1999–2005 data from the weighing programme. The portion of the recent nutrition improvement that can be ascribed to the PEM Control Programme has not been evaluated. A small-scale trial indicated minor effects on child anthropometry.</p>


Population sustained rate in underweight reduction was about 1.5–2.0 ppt/year from 1994–1998.

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